Educating the World, for a Free & Independent Confederation of Papuan Tribes


Frequently Asked Questions

Views & Perspectives, Facts on Indonesia's Sovereignty over Irian Jaya, by the Indonesian Permanent Mission to the UN, April 2001


Thanks for writing and the work you are doing for us,

The questions you are asking are common questions and I will answer them briefly. I hope sometime later, these questions and answers will be on my website:  But right now, not yet. 

>For example, do you grow food -what? 

Two types of staple food here.

1. Sago, mostly consumed by Papuans in coastal areas: Biak, Serui, Jayapura, Maroke, etc. People don't normally grow sago as they grow wild all over the coastal areas. Normally people do not work hard here, fish is available, pork and others are in the jungles, and sago grows everywhere.

2. Sweet Potato, we in the highlands grow and eat this as our staple food. Our main source of protein is pork, and also culturally very valuable. It was used to pay bride-price, pay fines, buy forests/trees to build houses, and it still has a very high value here. We work hard here to make garden, plant, breed? and grow the crops and animals, no wild pigs here as those in the coastal areas.

Coastal Papuans are generally referred to as the Austro-Melanesians, ancestors originated from Asia. Highlands are Papua-Melanesians, ancestors until today are not yet identified, but generally referred to as native Papuans in this land.

>What is a common meal and who and how is it prepared? 

The meal is prepared with a method in Indonesian called "bakar batu" or "bake the stones", which means, heat the stones with fires. Dig hole on the ground, put grass, then put the hot stones on the grass, cover the stones with more grass, put the meal: normally sweet potatoes first, then put the stones on top of the potatoes. After this, put the grass again, then put the vegetables (such as cabbages, spinach, sweet-potato leaves, cassava leaves, papaya leaves, etc.), or fruits like cucumber, corn, etc.

We can mix meat with vegetables, just like in a pan as you do in the West. So vegetables are mixed with the meat, well not mixed as in the west but they spread the taste and smell well over. To make it nice...

Mostly men prepare the fires, heat the stones, find the woods, find the grass, slaughter the meat, (or hunt) and women clean the meals in the water/stream, then prepare the meal, and sit on the side of the hole and put the meals into the "cooking pan" (which is the ground for us), then men help them by handing out hot stones (women mostly wait on the ground to give order to men where to put the stones, etc)

After all, we cover the cooking up with more grass and leave them for about an hour. Before opening, men go first to sort out the grass, then women can go some minutes later to open. WOmen are responsible to decide which meal to go which group (We do not eat individually in separate plates and spoons. We put meal on the ground for some people, we sit for meals in groups of young people, boys, girls, etc.)

>What do you drink

I personally drink Guinness, but my people drink pure water, mostly unboilled one. We have pure and fresh water. But now it is changing, we are advised to boild water beforehand.

On the coastal areas, they also drink "saguer", and what I call Papuan wine, made out of coconut fruit. Taste coconut, but some minutes later, it shows its power...

>How do you get your water?
We get water from its source, from the ground, stream, etc.

>What are some specific trees, plants, flowers, animals that define the jungles of West Papua? 

The most unique bird is called The Bird of Paradise, only exist in Papua land, nowhere else. In the highlands, pig is the most valuable animal in economy, ceremonies, social, and cultural lives.

We are born and we have our own trees where our parents watch the trees. If the tree dies, I die, if something bad happen to the trees, so is happening to myself. This is uncommon, but only some tribes. You know we have 250 tribes or more in West Papua, and there are some common things, and also specific things for each tribe.

>How do you want to portray your country to someone who has never been there?  

This is what I tell them:
If you want to see the meaning of "stone-age people" go to West Papua, you will never find it anywhere else, especially in this 21st century.

If you want to see original, untouched forests, go to West Papua as well.

If you want to see glaciers in the tropical area, it only exists in West Papua, nowhere else.

If you want to be free, free from all, go to West Papua and live in the jungles.

These people, this place want INDEPENDENCE, 
because they want to keep these as they are. This generation is responsible to keep our world heritage, to keep it for our future generations, and for our world's history. It does not mean we do not want computers, etc., but we want what we want and what we need, not what the West things we should have.

> 2: What are the necklaces you wear around your neck?  

Two of them: One is my uncles finger, hanging on Papuan-style necklaces.

The other is another style, but in Papua mostly worn by women. I was wearing it to remind me, that sometime Papuan women will come out to speak for their country, and I am responsible to encourage them. (Until today, I have taught two Papuan girls who will soon come out to the world to speak for their country, but we are waiting for the security situation here to calm down)

So, in brief, those two represented men and women of West Papua, I was not alone, with all of them, together.

>I remember you wore so many - could you remind me of a few of the individual details? 

Another one, which you or people cannot see, is on my arm, given by my uncle, to remind me that I am with him, all the way, that I am not alone. 

> 3: what is your Papuan name? Could you spell it and show me how to say/pronounce it? 

Wimagan Wewo
Which means: A person who walks through the troubles (wars), but without enough ammunitions (in this case meals, money, friends to help, etc). This is my new name, given recently after I came back.

> 4: What is a saying in your native language - perhaps a greeting or a farewell or a blessing? How does one pronounce it? 

Wa! (ooa = means thank you, or hallo.
Yogo! =good bye (I cannot write the pronunciation)

Good sayings I have in my life are:

* We are born to die;

* I am born for others, others are born for me;

* I am alright here, don't bother me, please!

> 5: What are the colors of the W. Papuan flag? What does it look like? 

The flag is here now:

You will see it on the top let corner.

Thanks for your work. Remember, your are not doing only for West Papua, but for the whole world. The world heritage is here: in West Papua.

I hope this is enough for now and thanks again.

Keep up the work for the world,

Views & Perspectives, Facts on Indonesia's Sovereignty over Irian Jaya

Questions and Answers

1. What was the nature of the Irian Jaya issues ? Was this issue a case of decolonization or incomplete decolonization of Indonesia ?

Irian Jaya was a bilateral matter between the Netherlands and Indonesia regarding an incomplete process of decolonization of the Netherlands East Indies. Irian Jaya was neither a separate entity nor a non-self-governing territory detached from the Netherlands East Indies. The problem arose when the Netherlands insisted on maintaining its presence in the western half New Guinea. At the beginning, there was no international dimension to this problem until Indonesia brought the issue to the United Nations in 1954 after all bilateral means had been exhausted. Therefore, it would not be relevant to draw a comparison between East Timor and Iran Jaya as the crux of the problem is totally different. East Timor was recognized by the United Nations as a non-self-governing territory, with Portugal as the administering power, while Irian Jaya remained an resolved question of decolonization of Indonesian territory of what was once the Netherlands East Indies. It was the disruption of the Dutch decolonization process in 1949 that led to struggle of more than a decade by Indonesia to consolidate its territorial integrity and sovereignty over Irian Jaya.

2. Did the Dutch renege on its earlier agreements with Indonesia ?

The Dutch reneged on a series of commitments made prior to the Round Table Conference of 1949 in Den Haag. For before that time, there was never any doubt in the negotiations between the Dutch and the Indonesians on the status of Irian Jaya. This is reflected in several agreements concluded between Indonesia and Netherlands : The Linggardjati Agreement of 1947 explicitly stated " The United States of Indonesia shall comprise the entire territory of the Netherlands East Indies". The Renville Agreement of 1948 further underlined " Sovereignty throughout the Netherlands Indies is and shall remain with the Kingdom of Netherlands until, after a stated interval, the Kingdom of the Netherlands transfers its sovereignty to the United States of Indonesia", and the Roem-Van Royen Agreement of 1949 which in sum stated that the "United States of Indonesia shall comprise of the entire territory of the Netherlands East Indies in accordance with the terms of the Revile Agreement". Two other documents prove in an unmistakable way that it had never been the intention of the Dutch to separate West Papua from the rest of the East Indies colony. These were the Netherlands Constitution of 1948 and the Netherlands Report on its colony to the United Nations in 1949. Later, the Round Table Conference of 1949 settled the conflict between the two countries, resulting in the full recognition and acceptance by the Netherlands of the independence and sovereignty of Indonesia. It did not however settle the conflict in a comprehensive manner as it left out the territory of West New Guinea. In Indonesia’s view, this constituted a case of incomplete decolonization. For, it left out the unsettled question of West New Guinea was to be resolved within a period of one year after the transfer of sovereignty to Indonesia through peaceful negotiations between the Government of Indonesia and the Netherlands.

3. On what basis did Indonesia claim sovereignty over Iran Jaya ?

As far as Indonesia was concerned it was the legal successor to all territories, which during colonial times were called the Netherlands East Indies, in accordance with the provisions of agreements concluded between the two countries as well as by established international legal principles. Thus, it viewed Irian Jaya as an integral part of the Republic of Indonesia at the time of the proclamation of independence on August 17, 1945. In this regard, it should be emphasized that the international principle of "uti posseditis juns" asserts that the boundaries of nascent post-colonial countries conform to their pre-sovereign ones. For whatever reasons, in principle and logic, the issue of tittle ends there.

4. Why did Iran Jaya become an issue at the United Nations ?

The bilateral question became an issue at the United Nations because Indonesia brought up the matter before the UN General Assembly at its ninth session in 1954 as no progress had been made to resolve this matter in the bilateral talks and therefore there was a need to solicit international support. Such support was further obtained at the Bandung conference of 1955 and was incorporated into the final communique requesting to the United Nations to help the two sides reach a peaceful solution. The United Nations General Assembly discussed this items from the years 1954 to 1957 and then again in 1961 but a peaceful solution provide elusive.

5. What were the background developments to the New York Agreement in 1962 ?

For eight long years, the General Assembly had been unable to assist the parties in finding a solution. In light of the breakdown of relations between the two countries, Indonesia therefore availed of the initiative of the United Nations Secretary-General to join the Netherlands in informal discussions. Both the Indonesian and Netherlands Governments agreed to the intermediary of the Secretary-General U Thant and Ambassador Eilsworth Bunker of the United States of America. Largely due to their tireless efforts and coupled with the desire of both Governments, a bilateral settlement was reached between Indonesia and the Netherlands, with the conclusion of the New York Agreement.

6. What was the role of the UN with regard to the question of West Papua ? Who were the parties to that Agreement ?

The role of the United Nations was limited to an intermediary one. In this regard, it should be noted that Article XVII of the New York Agreement stated "Indonesia will invite the Secertary-General to appoint a Representative who, together with a staff made up, inter alia, of experts refered to in Article XVI, will carry out the Secretary-General’s responsibilities to advise, assist and participate in arrangements which are the responsibility of Indonesia". It is also pertinent to note that financial expenses incurred by the Secretary-General were borne by the Indonesian and the Netherlands Governments in equal shares. Nothing was to be paid for by the United Nations. From the outset, the UN’s involvement was aimed at finding a solution to bilateral matter through dialogue and peaceful means.

7. What are the salient features of the New York Agreement ?

The central feature of the agreement was the provision for an initial transfer of administration of this territory from the Netherlands to an interim UN authority (United Nations Temporary Executive Authority/UNTEA) effective 1 October 1962 and then for a final transfer from UNTEA to Indonesian control after 1 May 1963.

In addition, it was stipulated that an act of free choice would take place before the end of 1969 in order to determine whether or not the West Papuans peoples wished to remain subject to Indonesian jurisdiction, the arrangements of which were to rest solely with the Indonesian Government. It is important to stress that the Agreement was clearly a bilateral one and not called for by resolution of the United Nations or by any other mandate of the General Assembly.

8. Were the transfers of authority in Irian Jaya from the Dutch to the UN and later from the UN to Indonesia in line with the terms of the Agreement ?

The transfers of administration from the Netherlands to the UNTEA (United Nations ) took place on 1 October 1962, in accordance with Article V and VI of the New York Agreement, in a ceremony when the UN flag was raised and flown side by side with that of the Netherlands. Later, on 31 December 1962, the Netherlands flag was replaced by the Indonesian flag and flown next to the UN flag. In line with the provisions of Article XII of the New York Agreement, the Administrator of UNTEA, transferred full administrative control to Indonesia on 1 May 1963. The transfer of administration from the Netherlands to UNTEA and thereafter to Indonesia was achieved peacefully and without incident. The population was prepared for the changes to be brought about by the Agreement. The disruption of essential public services was avoided and continuity in employment was maintained.

9. What were the grounds to pronounce that the act of free choice in 1969 was internationally acceptable and valid?

The act of free choice was final, legal and irrevocable as Article XVII of the Agreement was implemented whereby the representative councils of Irian Jaya were consulted on the appropriate procedures and methods to ascertain the will of the people. Indonesia’s proposal was accepted and the enlarged councils, which included a total of 1,026 members, pronounced themselves, unanimously on behalf of the people of Irian Jaya to remain with Indonesia. Considering the specific difficulties of the terrain and the condition of the population at that time, the modalities of consultations with the representatives councils on procedures on methods were the best option to ascertain the free will of the people. This position was also reflected in the Secretary Generals report to the General Assembly in 1969 in which his quoted his Representatives conclusions of the implementation of the act of free choice by stating that "…it can be stated that, with the limitation impose by the geographical characteristics of the territory and the general political situation in the area, an act of a free choice in West Irian…". It is also noteworthy to point out was that this episode mark a significant event for the United Nations, considering it’s participation in such an activity for the first time.

In sum, it is an indisputable fact that the people of Irian Jaya exercise their right of self-determination through an act of free choice conducted from 14 July to 2 August 1969 in accordance with the relevant provision of the 1962 New York agreement.

10. Was the UN successful in mediating the bilateral conflict between Indonesia and the Netherlands? Why did the United Nations General Assembly only take note of the result of the New York Agreement?

Bearing in mind the limited role of the United Nations in this conflict, in can be concluded that the Organization was successful in acting as a mediator by bringing to an end long-standing bilateral dispute between Indonesia and the Netherlands. Indeed, the United Nations had completed its task finding a lasting and peaceful solution to a question, which could have post a real threat to regional security and stability of South East Asia. In affirming the successful outcome of this act of free choice, UNGA resolution 2504 (XXIV) only took note of the result of the New York Agreement in light of its bilateral nature while acknowledging with appreciation the fulfillment of the Secretary General and his representatives of the tasks entrusted to them under the Agreement of 1962 between the Republic of Indonesia and the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

In reflecting the overwhelming support of the international community, the latter solution was adopted with 84 members voting in favor, none against and 30 absence, as the entire process had met the requirements of the New York Agreement. It should be recalled in this context the earlier UNGA 1752 (XVII) had taken note of that instrument went authorizing the Secretary General to carry out the task entrusted to him. The UNGA took note of the Agreement as envisaged in the Article 1 of the Agreement which says that ‘… Indonesia and the Netherlands will jointly sponsor a draft resolution in the United Nations under the term of which the General Assembly of the United Nations takes note of the present Agreement.

11. Is the claim of the Second Congress of Papua in June 2000 that Irian Jaya has been independent since 1 December 1961 true?

Such a claim without foundation as the fact of free choice had already been conducted in line with the provisions of the New York Agreement and all parties, including the United Nations, played their respective roles and fulfilled their responsibilities. In this regard it should be reiterated that the UN General Assembly has noted the results of the act of free choice through resolution 2504 (XXIV) and thus consideration on this question cannot be renewed. The Dutch never recognized Irian Jaya as a sovereign entity, a fact which was confirm in the proceedings of the New York Agreement in 1962. Neither did they ask the other party to the bilateral Agreement challenge its outcome. Irian Jaya as an integral part of Indonesia occupies a status equal to the other provinces, its people join political parties, participate in election and send representatives to the Indonesian Parliament.

12. Considering the historical evolution and contemporary developments, what is the most appropriate solution to the issue?

The issue of Irian Jaya has to be put in the right perspective that Irian Jaya was an integral part of the Netherlands East Indies during the Dutch colonialism. The Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945 as well during the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945 the restoration of Indonesian sovereignty through the transfer of authority from United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA) to Indonesia and the conclusion of the act of free choice solidified Indonesia’s territorial sovereignty over Irian Jaya. Therefore, any solution to the issue must be within the framework of the unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia. It is important to stress that Indonesia is a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural and multi-linguistic nation with "unity in diversity" as its model. It is therefore important to find common ground to bridge differences among its peoples as differences are common in democratic societies through out the world. One such way is to accord greater autonomy to provinces, including Irian Jaya at the regional level so that the people can improve their lives an assured access to the government. Indeed, regional autonomy is destined to emerge as a unifying factor of a diverse, united and democratic Indonesia.

Problems arising of the province of Irian Jaya has to be dealt with on a national basis and the Government would view any attempt to disrupt Indonesia’s sovereignty over Iran Jaya as interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign state.

(Source: Permanent Mission of the Republic of Indonesia to the United Nations in New York, April 2001)


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